Several pathologic processes can disturb the complex structures of the eyelids and orbital tissues and the muscles that enable their proper function. Some disorders, such as entropion and ectropion, are usually acquired in later years from laxity of supporting structures. Blepharoptosis has a range of causes, from aging to an intracranial aneurysm, and its severity varies, from mild to almost complete closure of the lid fissures. Graves' orbitopathy can produce lid retraction, lid lag, and proptosis and can cause vision-threatening conditions. Orbital cellulitis produces pain, swelling, proptosis, and redness of the lids and conjunctivae and, if severe, can compromise ocular motility and visual acuity. Early recognition of the specific disorder and prompt and adequate treatment are essential to spare the patient discomfort and ensure preservation of vision.
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