Community-acquired respiratory viruses in transplant patients: Diversity, impact, unmet clinical needs

Michael G. Ison*, Hans H. Hirsch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Patients undergoing solid-organ transplantation (SOT) or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are at increased risk for infectious complications. Community-acquired respiratory viruses (CARVs) pose a particular challenge due to the frequent exposure pre-, peri-, and posttransplantation. Although influenza A and B viruses have a top priority regarding prevention and treatment, recent molecular diagnostic tests detecting an array of other CARVs in real time have dramatically expanded our knowledge about the epidemiology, diversity, and impact of CARV infections in the general population and in allogeneic HCT and SOT patients. These data have demonstrated that non-influenza CARVs independently contribute to morbidity and mortality of transplant patients. However, effective vaccination and antiviral treatment is only emerging for non-influenza CARVs, placing emphasis on infection control and supportive measures. Here, we review the current knowledge about CARVs in SOT and allogeneic HCT patients to better define the magnitude of this unmet clinical need and to discuss some of the lessons learned from human influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainflu-enzavirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, and bocavirus regarding diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere00042
JournalClinical microbiology reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2019


  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Diagnosis
  • Respiratory viruses
  • Solid-organ transplantation
  • Treatment
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Epidemiology


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