Crime prevention strategies often aim at changing the motivations and predispositions of offenders. A new approach has developed within the last dec ade which focuses on changing the behavior of potential victims. The authors explore the theoretical foundations of the new strategies for reducing crime, commonly known as community crime prevention. They suggest that the in novation is a result of a major shift in the research paradigm for studying the effects of crime. The orientation underlying community crime prevention is labeled the "victimization perspective." Following a description of some limitations in that perspective, the authors offer, as an alternative, a perspective oriented toward social control. The social control perspective, which is based on the empirical findings of several recently completed research projects, offers a theoretical foundation both for a fresh approach to the study of the effects of crime and for the development of policies for community crime prevention.