Background - This study compares the effect of estrogens and ACE inhibition on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women, genotyped for a 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter, a polymorphism shown to influence PAI-1 concentrations. Methods and Results - Morning estradiol, PAI-1, tissue plasminogen activator, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured in 19 postmenopausal women (5G/5G:4G/5G:4G4G=5:10:4, respectively) at baseline and during randomized, single-blind, crossover treatment with conjugated equine estrogens 0.625 mg per os per day, ramipril 10 mg per os per day, and combination estrogens and ramipril. Estradiol (P<0.005) and angiotensin II (P<0.01) were significantly higher during estrogens. Plasma renin activity was significantly increased during ACE inhibition (P<0.05). Both conjugated estrogens [PAI-1 antigen from 12.5 (7.6, 17.4) [mean (95% CI)] baseline to 6.6 (2.6, 10.7) ng/mL, P<0.01] and ACE inhibition [8.3 (4.9, 11.7) ng/mL, P<0.005] decreased PAI-1 without decreasing tissue plasminogen activator. The effect of combined therapy on PAI-1 [5.6 (2.3, 8.8) ng/mL] was significantly greater than that of ramipril alone (P<0.05). There was a significant effect of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype on baseline PAI-1 concentrations (P=0.001) and a significant interactive effect of 4G/5G genotype and treatment, such that genotype influenced the change in PAI-1 during ramipril (P=0.011) or combined therapy (P=0.006) but not during estrogens (P=0.715). Conclusions - ACE inhibition with ramipril and conjugated estrogens similarly decrease PAI-1 antigen concentrations in postmenopausal women. Larger studies that use clinical outcomes are needed to determine whether PAI-1 4G/5G genotype should influence the choice of conjugated estrogens or ACE inhibition for the treatment of healthy postmenopausal women.
- Plasminogen activators
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)