Comparison of canine mandibular bone regeneration by distraction osteogenesis versus acute resection and rigid external fixation

Arun K. Gosain*, Behrooz Kalantarian, Lian Shen Song, Jeffrey D. Larson, Christopher A. Jenkins, Charles R. Wilson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The present study was performed (1) to explore the mechanism of skeletal healing following distinction osteogenesis of the mandible and to evaluate whether the same process is involved following acute mandibular resection and rigid external fixation, and (2) to examine the role of the periosteum in skeletal healing in both models. The study was performed using 16 mongrel dogs divided into two equal groups. In the first group, distinction of 20 mm was performed at a rate of 1 mm/day. In the second group, bone resection of 20 mm was performed, followed by rigid external fixation. The buccal periosteum was stripped in four dogs from each group, and the periosteum was left intact in the remaining four dogs. Dogs were euthanized after a survival period of either 2 or 3 months, and the new bone regenerate was evaluated. Analysis consisted of three-dimensional computed tomography scanning, histometric analysis, and immunostaining. Analysis of bone mineral content in the residual gap was conducted. Bone mineral content was increased in 3- versus 2-month survival for all groups (p < 0.05). The distracted groups had greater bone mineral content than their acutely resected counterparts, with the difference achieving statistical significance by 3-month survival (p < 0.05). Although periosteal preservation resulted in increased bone mineral content over time for all groups (p = 0.044), periosteal preservation had no significant effect on bone mineral content in the distracted groups. After periosteal stripping, however, bone mineral content was significantly increased in dogs that undenvent distraction rather than acute resection and rigid external fixation (p = 0.022). Regarding histometric analysis, analysis of fibrous (issue content in the bone regenerate demonstinted that by 3 months the distracted groups had significantly less fibrous tissue in the new bone regenerate than did the acutely resected groups (p < 0.001 ). Regarding immunostaining, diffuse localization of transforming growth factor-β1 was observed in all groups at 2 months, returning to nearly baseline levels by 3 months. These data demonstrate that significant bone formation in a segmental gap can be achieved alter acute mandibular resection and rigid external fixation if the periosteum is preserved. However, after periosteal injury or stripping, significant bone formation can only be achieved by distraction osteogenesis. In both processes, bone formation is preceded by upregulation of transforming growth factor-β1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1490-1499
Number of pages10
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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