Comparison of electrogram characteristics in persistent atrial fibrillation

Jeffrey J. Goldberger*, Ghaith Zaatari, Raul D. Mitrani, Catherine Blandon, Jorge Bohorquez, Jason Ng, Justin Ng, Alex Velasquez, Litsa Lambrakos, Rishi Arora

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Multiple analysis techniques evaluate electrograms during atrial fibrillation (AF), but none have been established to guide catheter ablation. This study compares electrogram properties recorded from multiple right (RA) and left atrial (LA) sites. Methods: Multisite LA/RA mapping (281 ± 176/239 ± 166 sites/patient) was performed in 42 patients (30 males, age 63 ± 9 years) undergoing first (n = 32) or redo-AF ablation (n = 10). All electrogram recordings were visually reviewed and artifactual signals were excluded leaving a total of 21 846 for analysis. Electrogram characteristics evaluated were cycle length (CL), amplitude, Shannon's entropy (ShEn), fractionation interval, dominant frequency, organizational index, and cycle length of most recurrent morphology (CLR) from morphology recurrence plot analysis. Results: Electrogram characteristics were correlated to each other. All pairwise comparisons were significant (p <.001) except for dominant frequency and CLR (p =.59), and amplitude and dominant frequency (p =.38). Only ShEn and fractionation interval demonstrated a strong negative correlation (r = −.94). All other pairwise comparisons were poor to moderately correlated. The relationships are highly conserved among patients, in the RA versus LA, and in those undergoing initial versus redo ablations. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy did not have a significant effect on electrogram characteristics, except minimum ShEn. Electrogram characteristics associated with ablation outcome were shorter minimum CLR, lower minimum ShEn, and longer mimimum CL. There was minimal overlap between the top 10 sites identified by one electrogram characteristic and the top 10 sites identified by the other 10 characteristics. Conclusion: Multiple techniques can be employed for electrogram analysis in AF. In this analysis of eight different electrogram characteristics, seven were poorly to moderately correlated and do not identify similar locations. Only some characteristics were predictive of ablation outcome. Further studies to consider electrogram properties, perhaps in combination, for categorizing and/or mapping AF are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-197
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Shannon's entropy
  • atrial fibrillation
  • cycle length
  • dominant frequency
  • electrograms
  • mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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