Comparison of Multiexcitation Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer (March 2003)

Gregory M. Palmer, Changfang Zhu, Tara M. Breslin, Fushen Xu, Kennedy W. Gilchrist, Nirmala Ramanujam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nonmalignant (n = 36) and malignant (n = 20) tissue samples were obtained from breast cancer and breast reduction surgeries. These tissues were characterized using multiple excitation wavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range, immediately after excision. Spectra were then analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) as a data reduction technique. PCA was performed on each fluorescence spectrum, as well as on the diffuse reflectance spectrum individually, to establish a set of principal components for each spectrum. A Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to determine which principal components show statistically significant differences between malignant and nonmalignant tissues. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was utilized to classify the samples based on the diagnostically useful principal components. Cross-validation of this nonparametric algorithm was carried out to determine its classification accuracy in an unbiased manner. Multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy was successful in discriminating malignant and nonmalignant tissues, with a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 92%, respectively. The sensitivity (30%) and specificity (78%) of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy alone was significantly lower. Combining fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra did not improve the classification accuracy of an algorithm based on fluorescence spectra alone. The fluorescence excitation-emission wavelengths identified as being diagnostic from the PCA-SVM algorithm suggest that the important fluorophores for breast cancer diagnosis are most likely tryptophan, NAD(P)H and flavoproteins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1233-1242
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Volume50
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2003
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Breast cancer
  • Fluorescence
  • Reflectance
  • Spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

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