Complete endoscopic closure of gastrotomy after natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery using the NDO Plicator

M. F. McGee, J. M. Marks*, R. P. Onders, A. Chak, J. Jin, C. P. Williams, S. J. Schomisch, J. L. Ponsky

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


Background: The NDO Plicator is a device developed for endoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) by approximation of tissues together with a double-pledgeted U-stitch. It was theorized that this device may facilitate transgastric natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) because closure of the transgastric defect remains a key component for advancement of this new technology. Methods: A standardized 12-mm gastrotomy was created endoscopically in four pigs using a combination of needle-knife cautery and balloon dilation. As the endoscope was removed, a Savary soft-tipped wire was introduced into the stomach, and the NDO Plicator was subsequently advanced over the wire. Each defect was identified, and the device was positioned. If necessary, the Plicator's tissue grasper was used to hold the superior aspect of the gastrotomy and bring the opposed borders of the defect within the jaws of the device. The device was fired three times, leaving three pledgeted suture bundles to close the gastric defect. After closure, each animal was explored, and the integrity of the closure was assessed. The animals underwent in vivo contrast fluoroscopy and ex vivo burst pressure testing studies for assessment of leakage at the closure site. Results: The first animal was used to test feasibility, refine techniques, and develop a standard procedure. All of the next three animals studied showed complete sealing of the gastrotomy site without evidence of contrast extravasation on multiplanar fluoroscopic imaging. Each stomach was excised, submerged in water, and subjected to a pressurized air leak test. No leaks were noted until pressures exceeded 55 mmHg. Conclusion: This study supports the use of the NDO Plicator for closure of standardized gastric defects in a porcine model. In addition to closing NOTES gastrotomies, the NDO Plicator may be a particularly useful tool for obtaining complete closure of gastric perforations and anastomotic leaks, and for performing stomal reduction after gastric bypass procedures. The mechanical properties of a closure are not the only factor determining whether a leak will develop. Tissue opposition, ischemia, and tension are important factors that are not easily or reliably measured. The physiologic relevance of gastric bursting pressure is not known. Therefore, corollary animal studies with longer-term evaluation are necessary before research proceeds to clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-220
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008


  • Endolumenal therapy
  • Endoscopy
  • GERD
  • Minimally invasive surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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