Components of metabolic syndrome associated with lower neurocognitive performance in youth with perinatally acquired HIV and youth who are HIV-exposed uninfected

Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

We investigated the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components [abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides (TG), low HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure (BP), and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG)] with neurocognitive impairment in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (YPHIV) or who are perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (YPHEU). This was an observational study with a comparison group of 350 YPHIV and 68 YPHEU ages 10–19 years. Youth with MetS components measured between 1 year before and 3 months after a baseline neurocognitive assessment (Wechsler Intelligence Scale) were selected from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). A sub-group completed another assessment 3 years later. We assessed the association of each baseline MetS component with five standardized neurocognitive indices at baseline and changes in indices over time. At baseline, 15% of YPHIV and 18% of YPHEU met criteria for ≥ 2 MetS components. Among YPHIV, there was no association between MetS components and neurocognitive indices at baseline; however, over time, elevated baseline BP was associated with a greater decrease in mean Perceptual Reasoning scores (−4.3;95%CI: −8.8,0.3) and ≥ 2 MetS components with a greater decrease in mean Processing Speed scores (−5.1;95%CI: −9.4, −0.8). Among YPHEU, elevated TG was associated with lower mean Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-scale IQ scores at baseline, and IFG with lower mean Verbal Comprehension scores. Components of MetS in YPHIV (elevated BP) and YPHEU (elevated TG and IFG) were associated with lower neurocognitive performance index scores. Studies to elucidate how modifying metabolic risk factors early in life may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this population are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)702-715
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of neurovirology
Volume27
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Children
  • HIV exposure
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Neurocognitive function
  • Perinatally acquired HIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Virology

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