Comprehensive Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Cardiac Rehabilitation in Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome

Robert E. Heinl, Devinder S. Dhindsa, Elliot N. Mahlof, William M. Schultz, Johnathan C. Ricketts, Tina Varghese, Amirhossein Esmaeeli, Marc P. Allard-Ratick, Anthony J. Millard, Heval M. Kelli, Pratik B. Sandesara, Danny J. Eapen, Laurence Sperling*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The epidemic of obesity has contributed to a growing burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide. MetS is defined as central obesity along with associated factors such as hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. MetS and DM are associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Healthy behavioural modification is the cornerstone for reducing the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease burden in this population. Comprehensive, multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce mortality and hospitalizations in patients with MetS and DM. Despite this benefit, patients with MetS and DM are less likely to attend and complete CR because of numerous barriers. Implementation of innovative CR delivery models might improve utilization of CR and cardiovascular outcomes in this high-risk population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S349-S357
JournalCanadian Journal of Cardiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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