Concurrent and face validity of a capsulorhexis simulation with respect to human patients

P. Pat Banerjee*, Deepak P. Edward, Shun Liang, Charles S. Bouchard, Paul J. Bryar, Richard Ahuja, Phillip Dray, Daniel P. Bailey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

11 Scopus citations


A prototype version of the ImmersiveTouch® virtual reality simulator was applied to capsulorhexis, the creation of circular tear or "rhexis" in the lens capsule of the eye during cataract surgery. Virtual and live surgery scores by residents were compared. The same three metrics are used in each mode: circularity of the rhexis, duration of surgery (sec), and number of forceps grabs of the capsule per completed rhexis (fewer is better). The average simulator circularity score correlated closely with the average live score (P = 0.0002; N = 4), establishing "concurrent validity" for this metric. Individuals performed similarly to each other in both modes, as shown by the low standard deviations for average circularity (virtual 0.92 ± 0.04; live 0.88 ± 0.04). By contrast, the standard deviations are high for the other two metrics, capsulorhexis duration (virtual 96.91 ± 44.23 sec; live 94.42 ± 65.74 sec, N = 8) and number of forceps grabs (virtual 10.66 ± 4.81; live 10.31 ± 5.23, N = 8). Nevertheless, the simulator was able to demonstrate that the surgeons with wide variations in total duration and number of capsular grabs in 2 to 4 trials of simulated surgery also had similar variations in live surgery, so that the simulator retains some realism or "face validity."

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMedicine Meets Virtual Reality 19
Subtitle of host publicationNextMed, MMVR 2012
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9781614990215
StatePublished - 2012
EventMedicine Meets Virtual Reality 19: NextMed, MMVR 2012 - Newport Beach, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 9 2012Feb 11 2012

Publication series

NameStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
ISSN (Print)0926-9630
ISSN (Electronic)1879-8365


OtherMedicine Meets Virtual Reality 19: NextMed, MMVR 2012
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityNewport Beach, CA


  • Capsulorhexis
  • Cataract surgery
  • Construct validity
  • Face validity
  • ImmersiveTouch
  • Simulator training
  • Surgery simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


Dive into the research topics of 'Concurrent and face validity of a capsulorhexis simulation with respect to human patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this