Congenital and Structural Heart Disease Interventions Using Echocardiography-Fluoroscopy Fusion Imaging

Pei Ni Jone*, Alexander Haak, Michael Ross, Dominik M. Wiktor, Edward Gill, Robert A. Quaife, John C. Messenger, Ernesto E. Salcedo, John D. Carroll

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


With the increasing frequency of catheter-based interventions in congenital heart disease and structural heart disease, the use of fusion imaging has become a major enhancement for understanding complex anatomy and facilitating key steps in interventional procedures. Because transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy are displayed in different visual perspectives, the interventional cardiologist must mentally reregister the images from the two modalities during the procedure. Echocardiography-fluoroscopy fusion (EFF) imaging displays the x-ray and ultrasound overlay images in the same visual perspective. This new technology allows for enhanced team communication, improved visual guidance, and more efficient navigation. The purpose of this review is to describe the EFF imaging technology, current uses of EFF imaging in congenital and structural heart disease, and future directions that will enhance this unique imaging technology to guide interventional procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1495-1504
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2019


  • Congenital heart disease
  • Echocardiography-fluoroscopy fusion imaging
  • Image-guided interventions
  • Structural heart disease
  • Three-dimensional echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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