Congenital epidermolysis bullosa acquisita: Vertical transfer of maternal autoantibody from mother to infant

Melissa L. Abrams, Aimee Smidt, Latanya Benjamin, Mei Chen, David Woodley, Anthony J. Mancini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare, chronic, autoimmune bullous dermatosis that is caused by autoantibodies against the noncollagenous terminus of the α chain of type VII collagen, resulting in decreased anchoring fibrils in the lamina densa. It classically presents with skin fragility and trauma-induced blisters that are particularly extensive over the distal aspect of the extremities and that heal with milia, dyspigmentation, and scarring, similar in presentation to dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Disease onset is typically in adulthood, although rare cases of childhood disease occur. To our knowledge, a case involving a neonate with congenital EBA has not yet been reported in the literature. We describe a newborn with transient EBA due to the passive transfer of maternal autoantibodies. Observations: A 2-day-old girl was evaluated for tense blisters and areas of denuded skin that had been present since birth. Her mother carried the diagnosis of EBA. The results of histopathologic analysis, immunofluorescence studies, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed the diagnosis of neonatal EBA. The patient improved with supportive therapy and has not required systemic intervention. Conclusions: Autoimmune neonatal bullous skin disease caused by placental transfer of maternal IgG autoantibodies is rare. It has been reported in neonates born to mothers with pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, and gestational pemphigoid. To our knowledge, congenital EBA has not been previously reported. Vertically acquired congenital autoimmune blistering disorders appear to be self-limited and resolve with supportive therapy, concomitant with the presumed clearance of maternal autoantibodies from the neonate's circulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-341
Number of pages5
JournalArchives of dermatology
Volume147
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

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