Congestion in Acute Heart Failure Syndromes: An Essential Target of Evaluation and Treatment

Mihai Gheorghiade*, Gerasimos Filippatos, Leonardo De Luca, John Burnett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

348 Scopus citations


Patients with acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) typically present with signs and symptoms of systemic and pulmonary congestion at admission. However, elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures (hemodynamic congestion) may be present days or weeks before systemic and pulmonary congestion develop, resulting in hospital admission. This "hemodynamic congestion," with or without clinical congestion, may have deleterious effects including subendocardial ischemia, alterations in LV geometry resulting in secondary mitral insufficiency, and impaired cardiac venous drainage from coronary veins resulting in diastolic dysfunction. It is possible that these hemodynamic abnormalities in addition to neurohormonal activation may contribute to LV remodeling and heart failure progression. Approximately 50% of patients admitted for AHFS are discharged with persistent symptoms and/or minimal or no weight loss in spite of the fact that the main reason for admission was clinical congestion. Accordingly, the assessment and management of pulmonary and systemic congestion in these patients require reevaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S3-S10
JournalAmerican journal of medicine
Issue number12 SUPPL.
StatePublished - Dec 2006


  • Acute heart failure syndromes
  • Outcomes
  • Pulmonary congestion
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Congestion in Acute Heart Failure Syndromes: An Essential Target of Evaluation and Treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this