Constraints on the Environment and Energetics of the Broad-line Ic SN2014ad from Deep Radio and X-Ray Observations

M. Marongiu, C. Guidorzi, R. Margutti, D. L. Coppejans, R. Martone, A. Kamble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Broad-line type Ic Supernovae (BL-Ic SNe) are characterized by high ejecta velocity (104 km s-1) and are sometimes associated with the relativistic jets typical of long duration (2 s) Gamma-Ray Bursts. The reason why a small fraction of BL-Ic SNe harbor relativistic jets is not known. Here we present deep X-ray and radio observations of the BL-Ic SN 2014ad extending from 13 to 930 days post explosion. SN 2014ad was not detected at either frequency and has no observational evidence of a GRB counterpart. The proximity of SN 2014ad (d ∼26 Mpc) enables very deep constraints on the progenitor mass-loss rate and on the total energy of the fast ejecta E. We consider two synchrotron emission scenarios for a wind-like circumstellar medium (CSM): (i) uncollimated nonrelativistic ejecta, and (ii) off-axis relativistic jet. Within the first scenario our observations are consistent with GRB-less BL-Ic SNe characterized by a modest energy budget of their fast ejecta (E ≲1045 erg), like SNe 2002ap and 2010ay. For jetted explosions, we cannot rule out a GRB with E ≲1051 erg (beam-corrected) with a narrow opening angle (θ j ∼5°) observed moderately off-axis (θ obs 30°) and expanding in a very low CSM density ( M o yr-1). Our study shows that off-axis low-energy jets expanding in a low-density medium cannot be ruled out even in the most nearby BL-Ic SNe with extensive deep observations, and might be a common feature of BL-Ic SNe.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number89
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 10 2019


  • gamma-ray burst: general
  • supernovae: general
  • supernovae: individual (2014ad)
  • techniques: interferometric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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