Broad-line type Ic Supernovae (BL-Ic SNe) are characterized by high ejecta velocity (& 104 km s−1) and are sometimes associated with the relativistic jets typical of long duration (& 2 s) Gamma-Ray Bursts (L-GRBs). The reason why a small fraction of BL-Ic SNe harbor relativistic jets is not known. Here we present deep X-ray and radio observations of the BL-Ic SN 2014ad extending from 13 to 930 days post explosion. SN 2014ad was not detected at either frequency and has no observational evidence of a GRB counterpart. The proximity of SN 2014ad (d ∼ 26 Mpc) enables very deep constraints on the progenitor mass-loss rate Ṁ and on the total energy of the fast ejecta E. We consider two synchrotron emission scenarios for a wind-like circumstellar medium (CSM): (i) uncollimated non-relativistic ejecta, and (ii) off-axis relativistic jet. Within the first scenario our observations are consistent with GRB-less BL-Ic SNe characterized by a modest energy budget of their fast ejecta (E . 1045 erg), like SNe 2002ap and 2010ay. For jetted explosions, we cannot rule out a GRB with E . 1051 erg (beam-corrected) with a narrow opening angle (θj ∼ 5◦) observed moderately off-axis (θobs & 30◦) and expanding in a very low CSM density (Ṁ . 10−6 M⊙ yr−1). Our study shows that off-axis low-energy jets expanding in a low-density medium cannot be ruled out even in the most nearby BL-Ic SNe with extensive deep observations, and might be a common feature of BL-Ic SNe.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - May 29 2019|
- Gamma-ray burst: general
- Supernovae: general
- Supernovae: individual: 2014ad
- Techniques: interferometric radio analysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas