Construct validity of the enfranchisement scale of the community participation indicators

Jessica Kersey*, Lauren Terhorst, Allen W. Heinemann, Joy Hammel, Carolyn Baum, Michael McCue, Elizabeth R. Skidmore

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objective: This study examined the construct validity of the Enfranchisement scale of the Community Participation Indicators. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional study of rehabilitation outcomes. Subjects: The parent study included 604 community-dwelling adults with chronic traumatic brain injury, stroke, or spinal cord injury. The sample had a mean age of 64.1 years, was two-thirds male, and included a high proportion of racial minorities (n = 250, 41.4%). Main measures: The Enfranchisement scale contains two subscales: the Control subscale and the Importance subscale. We examined correlations between each Enfranchisement subscale and measures of participation, environment, and impairments. The current analyses included cases with at least 80% of items completed on each subscale (Control subscale: n = 391; Importance subscale: n = 219). Missing values were imputed using multiple imputation. Results: The sample demonstrated high scores, indicating poor enfranchisement (Control subscale: M = 51.7; Importance subscale: M = 43.0). Both subscales were most strongly associated with measures of participation (Control subscale: r = 0.56; Importance subscale: r = 0.52), and least strongly associated with measures of cognition (Control subscale: r = 0.03; Importance subscale: r = 0.03). The Importance subscale was closely associated with depression (r = 0.54), and systems, services, and policies (r = 0.50). Both subscales were associated with social attitudes (Control subscale: r = 0.44; Importance subscale: r = 0.44) and social support (Control subscale: r = 0.49; Importance subscale: r = 0.41). Conclusions: We found evidence of convergent validity between the Enfranchisement scale and measures of participation, and discriminant validity between the Enfranchisement scale and measures of disability-related impairments. The analyses also revealed the importance of the environment to enfranchisement outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)263-271
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Rehabilitation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Validity
  • community participation
  • patient-centred outcome measure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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