Consuming a balanced high fat diet for 16 weeks improves body composition, inflammation and vascular function parameters in obese premenopausal women

Heidi J. Silver*, Hakmook Kang, Charles D. Keil, James A. Muldowney, Heidi Kocalis, Sergio Fazio, Douglas E. Vaughan, Kevin D. Niswender

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective Inflammation, insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction characterize obesity and predict development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although women experience CVD events at an older age, vascular dysfunction is evident 10 years prior to coronary artery disease. Questions remain whether replacing SFA entirely with MUFA or PUFA is the optimal approach for cardiometabolic benefits. This study tested the hypotheses that: A) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve with a high fat diet (HFD) when type of fat is balanced as 1/3 SFA, 1/3 MUFA and 1/3 PUFA; and b) body composition, inflammation and vascular function would improve more when balanced HFD is supplemented with 18C fatty acids, in proportion to the degree of 18C unsaturation. Methods Obese premenopausal women were stabilized on balanced HFD and randomized to consume 9 g/d of encapsulated stearate (18:0), oleate (18:1), linoleate (18:2) or placebo. Results Significant improvements occurred in fat oxidation rate (↑6%), body composition (%fat: ↓2.5 ± 2.1%; %lean: ↑2.5 ± 2.1%), inflammation (↓ IL-1α, IL-1β, 1 L-12, Il-17, IFNγ, TNFα, TNFβ) and vascular function (↓BP, ↓PAI-1, ↑tPA activity). When compared to HFD + placebo, HFD + stearate had the greatest effect on reducing IFNγ (↓74%) and HFD + linoleate had the greatest effect on reducing PAI-1 (↓31%). Conclusions Balancing the type of dietary fat consumed (SFA/MUFA/PUFA) is a feasible strategy to positively affect markers of CVD risk. Moreover, reductions in inflammatory molecules involved in vascular function might be enhanced when intake of certain 18C fatty acids is supplemented. Long term effects need to be determined for this approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)562-573
Number of pages12
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume63
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2014

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular
  • Endothelial
  • Fatty acid
  • Inflammation
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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