As advancements in care improve longevity in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), it is crucial to further characterize this rapidly growing adult population. It is also essential that equitable care is offered across demographic groups. Hospitalizations for adults with CHD in the National Inpatient Sample were identified to describe trends in overall and cause-specific rates of admission per 1,000 adults with CHD from 2000 to 2018. Primary admission causes were then analyzed and stratified by race. An aggregate rate of left-ventricular assist device placements and heart transplants was calculated for each group and trended over the years. A total of 1,562,001 weighted hospitalizations were identified. Overall, annual rates of hospital admissions increased from 39 per 1,000 adults with CHD in 2000 to 74 per 1,000 in 2018, as did rates of cardiovascular admissions (16 of 1,000 to 34 of 1,000, p <0.001 for both). Transient ischemic attack/stroke (2.5 of 1,000 to 10.7 of 1,000), coronary artery disease (4.1 of 1,000 to 5.6 of 1,000), arrhythmias (2.8 of 1,000 to 4.6 of 1,000), and heart failure (2.8 of 1,000 to 5.0 of 1,000) were the most common cardiovascular primary causes of admission (other than CHD itself), and each significantly increased over time (p <0.001 for each). Mean age at all-cause and primary heart failure hospitalization increased for all races but remained 7 to 9 years younger for Black and Hispanic adults than White adults. In conclusion, hospitalization rates of adults with CHD in the United States increased from 2000 to 2018, largely driven by an increase in adults ≥55 years. Although the age at hospitalization increased overall, Black and Hispanic patients were substantially younger at presentation for advanced heart failure. Anticoagulation guidelines in this population may need revisiting as transient ischemic attack/stroke hospitalizations were frequent.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine