Continued Dominance of Carotid Endarterectomy over Stenting in the United States: Volumes, Outcomes, and Complications from the National Inpatient Sample (1997–2015)

Pedram Golnari, Pouya Nazari, Michael C. Hurley, Ali Shaibani, Sameer A. Ansari, Matthew B. Potts, Babak S. Jahromi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The introduction of carotid stenting (CAS) has led to numerous comparative trials with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Objective: The objective of the study was to review real-world volumes, outcomes, and complications following CEA versus CAS over an extended period to identify durable changes in practice. Methods: Data were extracted from the National Inpatient Sample. Trends were assessed by annual percent change (APC), and adjusted risk ratios were calculated across the last 5 years of the study period. Results: During 1997–2015, 199,330 symptomatic and 1,995,637 asymptomatic patients underwent carotid revascularization. In symptomatic patients, CEA declined (1997–2004; APC = −7.68%, P < 0.001) and CAS rose (1997–2008; APC = 15.48%, P < 0.001) during the first decade, subsequently becoming more muted. In asymptomatic patients, CEA decreased, whereas CAS initially increased (1997–2006; APC = 20.27%, P < 0.001) and then decreased (2007–2015; APC = −4.52%, P < 0.001). Routine discharge after symptomatic revascularization declined in CEA after 2003 and in CAS after 2006 (APC = −1.72% and −3.11%, respectively, P < 0.001 for both), corresponding to increasing patient comorbidity; similar trends were seen in asymptomatic patients. Death decreased after CEA (symptomatic and asymptomatic; APC = −4.85% and −3.53%, respectively, P < 0.001 for both) and CAS (asymptomatic only, APC = −2.53%, P = 0.04). CAS remained associated with a higher adjusted risk ratio for death, venous thromboembolism, and seizures in all patients and stroke and nonroutine discharge in symptomatic patients, during the last 5 years of the study period. Conclusions: Mortality has improved, but routine discharge has decreased following both CEA and CAS, congruent with increasing patient comorbidity. Trends in volumes, outcomes, and complication rates continue to favor CEA in real-world practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e238-e252
JournalWorld neurosurgery
Volume163
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Carotid artery stenosis
  • Carotid artery stenting
  • Carotid endarterectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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