Continuous Autoregulatory Indices Derived from Multi-Modal Monitoring: Each One Is Not Like the Other

Frederick A. Zeiler*, Joseph Donnelly, David K. Menon, Peter Smielewski, Christian Zweifel, Kenneth Martin Brady, Marek Czosnyka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


We assess the relationships between various continuous measures of autoregulatory capacity in a cohort of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed relationships between autoregulatory indices derived from intracranial pressure (ICP: PRx, PAx, RAC), transcranial Doppler (TCD: Mx, Sx, Dx), brain tissue-oxygenation (ORx), and spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS resolved: TOx, THx). Relationships between indices were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficient, Friedman test, principal component analysis (PCA), agglomerative hierarchal clustering (AHC) and k-means cluster analysis (KMCA). All analytic techniques were repeated for a range of temporal resolutions of data, including minute-by-minute averages, moving means of 30 samples, and grand mean for each patient. Thirty-seven patients were studied. The PRx displayed strong association with PAx/RAC across all the analytical techniques: Pearson correlation (r = 0.682/r = 0.677, p < 0.0001), PCA, AHC, and KMCA in the grand mean data sheet. Most TCD-based indices (Mx, Dx) were correlated and co-clustered on PCA, AHC, and KMCA. The Sx was found to be more closely associated with ICP-derived indices on Pearson correlation, PCA, AHC, and KMCA. The NIRS indices displayed variable correlation with each other and with indices derived from ICP and TCD signals. Of interest, TOx and THx co-cluster with ICP-based indices on PCA and AHC. The ORx failed to display any meaningful correlations with other indices in neither of the analytical method used. Thirty-minute moving average and minute-by-minute data set displayed similar results across all the methods. The RAC, Mx, and Sx were the strongest predictors of outcome at six months. Continuously updating autoregulatory indices are not all correlated with one another. Caution must be advised when utilizing less commonly described autoregulation indices (i.e., ORx) for the clinical assessment of autoregulatory capacity, because they appear to not be related to commonly measured/establish indices, such as PRx. Further prospective validation is required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3070-3080
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of neurotrauma
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 15 2017


  • autoregulation
  • autoregulation index
  • co-variance
  • multi-modal monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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