Contrast media

Laura Davidson*, Charles J. Davidson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Iodinated contrast agents used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory are the mainstay of visualization of coronary and peripheral vasculature as well as cardiac anatomy. Low osmolar and iso-osmolar agents have been developed to mitigate adverse events while providing optimal imaging. This chapter discusses contrast agents and the evidence-based strategies to prevent adverse events. First-generation, high-osmolar contrast media (HOCM) are ionic monomers, which consist of a single, negatively charged tri-iodinated benzene ring attached to a cation. Second-generation, low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) were designed to minimize side effects. LOCM are also available as nonionic monomers. Contrast agents are used in the cardiac catheterization lab for coronary arteriography, ventriculography, aortography, and peripheral arterial assessment. CKD is the primary risk factor for CI-AKI. Other risk factors include diabetes, advanced age, contrast dose, hypotension, multiple recent exposures to contrast, and anemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationCardiovascular Catheterization and Intervention
Subtitle of host publicationA Textbook of Coronary, Peripheral, and Structural Heart Disease, Second Edition
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781498750264
ISBN (Print)9781315113869
StatePublished - Sep 11 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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