The lipid substrate specificity of Manduca sexta lipid transfer particle (LTP) was examined in in vitro lipid transfer assays employing high density lipophorin and human low density lipoprotein (LDL) as donor/acceptor substrates. Unesterified cholesterol was found to exchange spontaneously between these substrate lipoproteins, and the extent of transfer/exchange was not affected by LTP. By contrast, transfer of labeled phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl ester was dependent on LTP in a concentration-dependent manner. Facilitated phosphatidylcholine transfer occurred at a faster rate than facilitated cholesteryl ester transfer; this observation suggests that either LTP may have an inherent preference for polar lipids or the accessibility of specific lipids in the donor substrate particle influences their rate of transfer. The capacity of LDL to accept exogenous lipid from lipophorin was investigated by increasing the high density lipophorin:LDL ratio in transfer assays. At a 3:1 (protein) ratio in the presence of LTP, LDL became turbid (and aggregated LDL were observed by electron microscopy) indicating LDL has a finite capacity to accept exogenous lipid while maintaining an overall stable structure. When either isolated human non B very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoproteins or insect apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) were included in transfer experiments, the sample did not become turbid although lipid transfer proceeded to the same extent as in the absence of added apolipoprotein. The reduction in sample turbidity caused by exogenous apolipoprotein occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that these proteins associate with the surface of LDL and stabilize the increment of lipid/water interface created by LTP-mediated net lipid transfer. The association of apolipoprotein with the surface of modified LDL was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, and scanning densitometry revealed that apoLp-III bound to the surface of LDL in a 1:14 apoB:apoLp-III molar ratio. Electron microscopy showed that apoLp-III- stabilized modified LDL particles have a larger diameter (29.2 ± 2.6 nm) than that of control LDL (22.7 ± 1.9 nm), consistent with the observed changes in particle density, lipid, and apolipoprotein content. Thus LTP- catalyzed vectorial lipid transfer can be used to introduce significant modifications into isolated LDL particles and provides a novel mechanism whereby VLDL-LDL interrelationships can be studied.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1992|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology