Cooling rate effect on tensile strength of laser deposited Inconel 718

Jennifer L. Bennett*, Orion L. Kafka, Haiguang Liao, Sarah J. Wolff, Cheng Yu, Puikei Cheng, Gregory Hyatt, Kornel Ehmann, Jian Cao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Abstract

The thermal history generated by the additive manufacturing process influences the resulting material properties. Although trends exist between solidification rate and microstructure, solidification rate is not enough to predict final microstructure and thus mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to relate the combined effects of solidification time and cooling time of the built material to its final ultimate tensile strength. Cooling time was defined as the time from when the location of interest last passes through 1,200 °C to when it reaches 400°C. Nine locations on a laser deposited IN718 thin wall were studied in detail to understand the effect of cooling rate on tensile strength. Tensile samples were machined at these locations. The thermal histories of the locations of interest were compared with build geometry and the ultimate tensile strength of that location. An inverse proportional relationship was seen between the distance of the location of interest from the substrate and the cooling time. A trend was also seen linking increased surface temperature and increased solidification time. Weighted Cooling And Solidification Time (WCAST) was defined as the sum of weighted normalized solidification time and the normalized cooling time. Ultimate tensile strength was seen to decrease as WCAST increased. Optical microscopy images of the build microstructure confirm that longer cooling and solidification times lead to coarser microstructures, which may cause the lower tensile strengths measured.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)912-919
Number of pages8
JournalProcedia Manufacturing
Volume26
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018
Event46th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 2018 - College Station, United States
Duration: Jun 18 2018Jun 22 2018

Fingerprint

Solidification
Tensile strength
Cooling
Lasers
Microstructure
3D printers
Optical microscopy
Materials properties
Mechanical properties
Geometry
Substrates

Keywords

  • INCONEL 718
  • additive manufacturing
  • cooling rate
  • direct energy deposition
  • solidification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence

Cite this

Bennett, Jennifer L. ; Kafka, Orion L. ; Liao, Haiguang ; Wolff, Sarah J. ; Yu, Cheng ; Cheng, Puikei ; Hyatt, Gregory ; Ehmann, Kornel ; Cao, Jian. / Cooling rate effect on tensile strength of laser deposited Inconel 718. In: Procedia Manufacturing. 2018 ; Vol. 26. pp. 912-919.
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abstract = "The thermal history generated by the additive manufacturing process influences the resulting material properties. Although trends exist between solidification rate and microstructure, solidification rate is not enough to predict final microstructure and thus mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to relate the combined effects of solidification time and cooling time of the built material to its final ultimate tensile strength. Cooling time was defined as the time from when the location of interest last passes through 1,200 °C to when it reaches 400°C. Nine locations on a laser deposited IN718 thin wall were studied in detail to understand the effect of cooling rate on tensile strength. Tensile samples were machined at these locations. The thermal histories of the locations of interest were compared with build geometry and the ultimate tensile strength of that location. An inverse proportional relationship was seen between the distance of the location of interest from the substrate and the cooling time. A trend was also seen linking increased surface temperature and increased solidification time. Weighted Cooling And Solidification Time (WCAST) was defined as the sum of weighted normalized solidification time and the normalized cooling time. Ultimate tensile strength was seen to decrease as WCAST increased. Optical microscopy images of the build microstructure confirm that longer cooling and solidification times lead to coarser microstructures, which may cause the lower tensile strengths measured.",
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Bennett, JL, Kafka, OL, Liao, H, Wolff, SJ, Yu, C, Cheng, P, Hyatt, G, Ehmann, K & Cao, J 2018, 'Cooling rate effect on tensile strength of laser deposited Inconel 718', Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 26, pp. 912-919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2018.07.118

Cooling rate effect on tensile strength of laser deposited Inconel 718. / Bennett, Jennifer L.; Kafka, Orion L.; Liao, Haiguang; Wolff, Sarah J.; Yu, Cheng; Cheng, Puikei; Hyatt, Gregory; Ehmann, Kornel; Cao, Jian.

In: Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 26, 01.01.2018, p. 912-919.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cooling rate effect on tensile strength of laser deposited Inconel 718

AU - Bennett, Jennifer L.

AU - Kafka, Orion L.

AU - Liao, Haiguang

AU - Wolff, Sarah J.

AU - Yu, Cheng

AU - Cheng, Puikei

AU - Hyatt, Gregory

AU - Ehmann, Kornel

AU - Cao, Jian

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - The thermal history generated by the additive manufacturing process influences the resulting material properties. Although trends exist between solidification rate and microstructure, solidification rate is not enough to predict final microstructure and thus mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to relate the combined effects of solidification time and cooling time of the built material to its final ultimate tensile strength. Cooling time was defined as the time from when the location of interest last passes through 1,200 °C to when it reaches 400°C. Nine locations on a laser deposited IN718 thin wall were studied in detail to understand the effect of cooling rate on tensile strength. Tensile samples were machined at these locations. The thermal histories of the locations of interest were compared with build geometry and the ultimate tensile strength of that location. An inverse proportional relationship was seen between the distance of the location of interest from the substrate and the cooling time. A trend was also seen linking increased surface temperature and increased solidification time. Weighted Cooling And Solidification Time (WCAST) was defined as the sum of weighted normalized solidification time and the normalized cooling time. Ultimate tensile strength was seen to decrease as WCAST increased. Optical microscopy images of the build microstructure confirm that longer cooling and solidification times lead to coarser microstructures, which may cause the lower tensile strengths measured.

AB - The thermal history generated by the additive manufacturing process influences the resulting material properties. Although trends exist between solidification rate and microstructure, solidification rate is not enough to predict final microstructure and thus mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to relate the combined effects of solidification time and cooling time of the built material to its final ultimate tensile strength. Cooling time was defined as the time from when the location of interest last passes through 1,200 °C to when it reaches 400°C. Nine locations on a laser deposited IN718 thin wall were studied in detail to understand the effect of cooling rate on tensile strength. Tensile samples were machined at these locations. The thermal histories of the locations of interest were compared with build geometry and the ultimate tensile strength of that location. An inverse proportional relationship was seen between the distance of the location of interest from the substrate and the cooling time. A trend was also seen linking increased surface temperature and increased solidification time. Weighted Cooling And Solidification Time (WCAST) was defined as the sum of weighted normalized solidification time and the normalized cooling time. Ultimate tensile strength was seen to decrease as WCAST increased. Optical microscopy images of the build microstructure confirm that longer cooling and solidification times lead to coarser microstructures, which may cause the lower tensile strengths measured.

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KW - additive manufacturing

KW - cooling rate

KW - direct energy deposition

KW - solidification

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U2 - 10.1016/j.promfg.2018.07.118

DO - 10.1016/j.promfg.2018.07.118

M3 - Conference article

VL - 26

SP - 912

EP - 919

JO - Procedia Manufacturing

JF - Procedia Manufacturing

SN - 2351-9789

ER -