Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) catalyzes the interconversion of l-lysine and l-β-lysine, by a radical mechanism initiated by the reversible, reductive homolytic scission of the C5-S bond in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to form methionine and the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical at the active site. LAM is a member of a superfamily of enzymes in which a [4Fe-4S]+ cluster with a unique, noncysteinyl coordinated Fe provides the electron required in the cleavage of SAM. Little is known of the mechanism by which the electron is inserted into SAM, and it is not known whether all enzymes of the family employ the same mechanism. Selenium X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the reaction of Se-adenosyl-l-selenomethionine (SeSAM) in place of SAM shows that electron transfer occurs by an inner sphere mechanism culminating in direct ligation of selenomethionine to iron upon cleavage of SeSAM. Here, we report an electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopic investigation of LAM to which has been bound 14N, 17O, 2H, or 13C labeled SAM. It is found that LAM exhibits the same motif for SAM binding to the [4Fe-4S]+,2+ clusters as does pyruvate formate lyase: chelation by the unique iron of the amino and carboxylato groups of SAM; close proximity of the methionine methyl group to the cluster. However, there appear to be significant, and possibly mechanistically important, differences in the details of the binding geometry of SAM. On the basis of the correlation of the ENDOR and XAS spectroscopic results, we postulate a mechanism by which LAM cleaves SAM to generate an intermediate where N, O, and S of the methionine product are bound to the octahedrally coordinated unique Fe of the [4Fe-4S] cluster.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry