Purpose: A second-generation tetrathiomolybdate analogue (ATN-224; choline tetrathiomolybdate), which selectively binds copper with high affinity, is currently completing two phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced solid and advanced hematologic malignancies. However, there is very little information about the mechanism of action of ATN-224 at the molecular level. Experimental Design: The effects of ATN-224 on endothelial and tumor cell growth were evaluated in cell culture experiments in vitro. The antiangiogenic activity of ATN-224 was investigated using the Matrigel plug model of angiogenesis. Results: ATN-224 inhibits superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in tumor and endothelial cells. The inhibition of SOD1 leads to inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and attenuation of angiogenesis in vivo. The inhibition of SOD1 activity in endothelial cells is dose and time dependent and leads to an increase in the steady-state levels of superoxide anions, resulting in the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation without apparent induction of apoptosis. In contrast, the inhibition of SOD1 in tumor cells leads to the induction of apoptosis. The effects of ATN-224 on endothelial and tumor cells could be substantially reversed using Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride, a catalytic small-molecule SOD mimetic. Conclusions: These data provide a distinct molecular target for the activity of ATN-224 and provide validation for SOD1 as a target for the inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research