Coronary Artery Disease Manifestations in HIV: What, How, and Why

Arjun Sinha, Matthew J Feinstein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Understanding why persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have accelerated atherosclerosis and its sequelae, including coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction, is necessary to provide appropriate care to a large and aging population with HIV. In this review, we delineate the diverse pathophysiologies underlying HIV-associated CAD and discuss how these are implicated in the clinical manifestations of CAD among persons with HIV. Several factors contribute to HIV-associated CAD, with chronic inflammation and immune activation likely representing the primary drivers. Increased monocyte activation, inflammation, and hyperlipidemia present in chronic HIV infection also mirror the pathophysiology of plaque rupture. Furthermore, mechanisms central to plaque erosion, such as activation of toll-like receptor 2 and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, are also abundant in HIV. In addition to inflammation and immune activation in general, persons with HIV have a higher prevalence than uninfected persons of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and tobacco use. Antiretroviral therapies, although clearly necessary for HIV treatment and survival, have had varied effects on CAD, but newer generation regimens have reduced cardiovascular toxicities. From a clinical standpoint, this mix of risk factors is implicated in earlier CAD among persons with HIV than uninfected persons; whether the distribution and underlying plaque content of CAD for persons with HIV differs considerably from uninfected persons has not been definitively studied. Furthermore, the role of cardiovascular risk estimators in HIV remains unclear, as does the role of traditional and emerging therapies; no trials of CAD therapies powered to detect clinical events have been completed among persons with HIV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-279
Number of pages10
JournalCanadian Journal of Cardiology
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

Fingerprint

Coronary Artery Disease
HIV
Inflammation
Toll-Like Receptor 2
Tobacco Use
Virus Diseases
Dyslipidemias
Hyperlipidemias
Insulin Resistance
Rupture
Monocytes
Atherosclerosis
Therapeutics
Myocardial Infarction
Hypertension
Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

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abstract = "Understanding why persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have accelerated atherosclerosis and its sequelae, including coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction, is necessary to provide appropriate care to a large and aging population with HIV. In this review, we delineate the diverse pathophysiologies underlying HIV-associated CAD and discuss how these are implicated in the clinical manifestations of CAD among persons with HIV. Several factors contribute to HIV-associated CAD, with chronic inflammation and immune activation likely representing the primary drivers. Increased monocyte activation, inflammation, and hyperlipidemia present in chronic HIV infection also mirror the pathophysiology of plaque rupture. Furthermore, mechanisms central to plaque erosion, such as activation of toll-like receptor 2 and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, are also abundant in HIV. In addition to inflammation and immune activation in general, persons with HIV have a higher prevalence than uninfected persons of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and tobacco use. Antiretroviral therapies, although clearly necessary for HIV treatment and survival, have had varied effects on CAD, but newer generation regimens have reduced cardiovascular toxicities. From a clinical standpoint, this mix of risk factors is implicated in earlier CAD among persons with HIV than uninfected persons; whether the distribution and underlying plaque content of CAD for persons with HIV differs considerably from uninfected persons has not been definitively studied. Furthermore, the role of cardiovascular risk estimators in HIV remains unclear, as does the role of traditional and emerging therapies; no trials of CAD therapies powered to detect clinical events have been completed among persons with HIV.",
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Coronary Artery Disease Manifestations in HIV : What, How, and Why. / Sinha, Arjun; Feinstein, Matthew J.

In: Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 35, No. 3, 01.03.2019, p. 270-279.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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