This paper suggests that transit improvements combined with automobile use charges may be capable of achieving substantial reductions in automobile emissions. These reductions appear to be available at a net cost saving relative to continued automobile operation if suitable transit load factors can be attained. While the effectiveness and cost estimates presented are admittedly imperfect, owing to their reliance on a particular modal choice model and rather crude measures of average trip characteristics, they clearly indicate that transit approaches to automobile emissions control are worthy of serious consideration. Further work in this area should include the detailed planning and design studies of individual cities, followed where appropriate by demonstrations, needed to estimate benefits and costs accurately in real situations. Particular attention should be given to the problem of achieving high load factors while maintaining acceptable service levels over large portions of urban areas, and to clarifying the relationships between transit service, transit ridership, and automobile ownership.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1973|
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