Cripto-1: A multifunctional modulator during embryogenesis and oncogenesis

Luigi Strizzi, Caterina Bianco, Nicola Normanno, David Salomon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

146 Scopus citations


It is increasingly evident that genes known to perform critical roles during early embryogenesis, particularly during stem cell renewal, pluripotentiality and survival, are also expressed during the development of cancer. In this regard, oncogenesis may be considered as the recapitulation of embryogenesis in an inappropriate temporal and spatial manner. The epidermal growth factor-Cripto-1/FRL1/cryptic family of proteins consists of extracellular and cell-associated proteins that have been identified in several vertebrate species. During early embryogenesis, epidermal growth factor-Cripto-1/FRL1/ cryptic proteins perform an obligatory role as coreceptors for the transforming growth factor-beta subfamily of proteins, which includes Nodal. Cripto-1 has also been shown to function as a ligand through a Nodal/Alk4-independent signaling pathway that involves binding to glypican-1 and the subsequent activation through src of phosphoinositol-3 kinase/Akt and ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase intracellular pathways. Expression of Cripto-1 is increased in several human cancers and its overexpression is associated with the development of mammary tumors in mice. Here, we review the role of Cripto-1 during embryogenesis, cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis and how these activities may relate to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. We also briefly discuss evidence suggesting that Cripto-1 may be involved in stem cell maintenance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5731-5741
Number of pages11
Issue number37
StatePublished - Aug 29 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Cripto-1
  • EHT
  • Embryogenesis
  • Engiogenesis
  • Oncogenesis
  • Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research


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