Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Chinese version of the Sleep Health Index

Yunping Mu, Yueying Wang, Jinjin Yuan, Kristen L. Knutson, Daqiao Zhu, Bilgay Izci-Balserak, Yinghui Wu, Bingqian Zhu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: To generate the Chinese Sleep Health Index (SHI-C) in Mandarin with cross-cultural adaptations and test its psychometric properties. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design. Health science students were included (N = 271) and a sub-set (n = 74) was invited for the re-test. Cross-cultural adaptation of the SHI-C was performed prior to formal validation. The SHI-C, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Bedtime Procrastination Scale, and Sleep Hygiene Index were used to measure variables of interest. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the structure validity. Bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the construct validity. Results: Exploratory factor analysis identified 3 factors (ie, sleep quality, sleep duration, and disordered sleep) accounting for 55.6% of the total variance. The SHI-C total and sleep quality sub-index scores were significantly associated with both PSQI global score (r = -0.132, p < .05; r = -0.182, p < .01, respectively) and ISI score (r = -0.655, p < .05; r = -0.820, p < .05, respectively). SHI-C total, sleep quality sub-index, and sleep duration sub-index scores were significantly associated with Bedtime Procrastination Scale and Sleep Hygiene Index scores (r = -0.238 to -0.368, p < .05). Students with insomnia (ISI > 9) or poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had significantly lower SHI-C scores than those without (73.5 vs. 89.0, p < .01; 84.1 vs. 86.7, p < .05, respectively). SHI-C showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82). Conclusions: The SHI-C demonstrated good validity and adequate reliability in a Chinese sample of health science students. It could be used to measure sleep health in future research and practice. Psychometric properties of the SHI-C among other Chinese populations remain to be confirmed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-123
Number of pages7
JournalSleep Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • Insomnia
  • Reliability
  • Sleep health
  • Sleep quality
  • Validation
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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