Crosslinking Strategies for 3D Bioprinting of Polymeric Hydrogels

Amin GhavamiNejad*, Nureddin Ashammakhi, Xiao Yu Wu, Ali Khademhosseini*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

229 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently advanced as an important tool to produce viable constructs that can be used for regenerative purposes or as tissue models. To develop biomimetic and sustainable 3D constructs, several important processing aspects need to be considered, among which crosslinking is most important for achieving desirable biomechanical stability of printed structures, which is reflected in subsequent behavior and use of these constructs. In this work, crosslinking methods used in 3D bioprinting studies are reviewed, parameters that affect bioink chemistry are discussed, and the potential toward improving crosslinking outcomes and construct performance is highlighted. Furthermore, current challenges and future prospects are discussed. Due to the direct connection between crosslinking methods and properties of 3D bioprinted structures, this Review can provide a basis for developing necessary modifications to the design and manufacturing process of advanced tissue-like constructs in future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2002931
Issue number35
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020


  • 3D bioprinting
  • bioinks
  • crosslinking strategies
  • hydrogel–cell interactions
  • tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Biotechnology
  • General Materials Science
  • Biomaterials


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