Background: Although the natural history of nonsyndromic unilateral coronal craniosynostosis has been extensively described, optimal management remains controversial due to lack of Level 1 evidence. This study aims to assess the current state of practice among craniofacial surgeons. Methods: Ninety-four craniofacial surgeons were approached to complete a survey consisting of 15 questions. Data were collected assessing surgeons' primary surgical indication, timing of intervention, preoperative imaging, and choice of technique for patients presenting with nonsyndromic unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. Choice of technique and timing of intervention in case of recurrence were also investigated. Results: After 5 mailings, the response rate was 61%. The combination of both appearance and raised intracranial pressure was the primary indication for treatment for 73.2% of surgeons. Preoperative CT scan of the skull was "always"performed by 70.1% of respondents. Open surgical management was most commonly performed at 8-10 months of age (38.6%). Bilateral frontal craniectomy with remodeling of the supraorbital bandeau and frontal bone was the most common choice of procedure (84.2%). In case of mild to moderate and moderate to severe recurrences at 1 year of age, 89.5% and 47.4% of surgeons opted for conservative management, respectively. Optimal timing for repeat cranioplasty was after 4 years of age (65.5%). Overall, 43.4% quoted lack of evidence as the greatest obstacle to clinical decision-making when dealing with unilateral synostosis. Conclusion: This survey exposes the lack of consensus and the disparity of opinion among craniofacial surgeons regarding the management of nonsyndromic coronal synostosis, particularly in the setting of recurrence.
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