Customizing TMS applications in traumatic brain injury using neuroimaging

Amy A. Herrold*, Shan H. Siddiqi, Sherri L. Livengood, Theresa L. Bender Pape, James P. Higgins, Maheen Mausoof Adamson, Albert Leung, Tommi Raij

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Optimizing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatments in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and co-occurring conditions may benefit from neuroimaging-based customization. Participants: Our total sample (N = 97) included 58 individuals with TBI (49 mild, 8 moderate, and 1 severe in a state of disordered consciousness), of which 24 had co-occurring conditions (depression in 14 and alcohol use disorder in 10). Of those without TBI, 6 individuals had alcohol use disorder and 33 were healthy controls. Of our total sample, 54 were veterans and 43 were civilians. Design: Proof-of-concept study incorporating data from 5 analyses/studies that used multimodal approaches to integrate neuroimaging with TMS. Main Measures: Multimodal neuroimaging methods including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MRI-guided TMS navigation, functional MRI, diffusion MRI, and TMS-induced electric fields. Outcomes included symptom scales, neuropsychological tests, and physiological measures. Results: It is feasible to use multimodal neuroimaging data to customize TMS targets and understand brain-based changes in targeted networks among people with TBI. Conclusions: TBI is an anatomically heterogeneous disorder. Preliminary evidence from the 5 studies suggests that using multimodal neuroimaging approaches to customize TMS treatment is feasible. To test whether this will lead to increased clinical efficacy, studies that integrate neuroimaging and TMS targeting data with outcomes are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-411
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • MRI
  • Neuroimaging
  • TBI
  • TMS
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology


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