Cutting forces in micro-end-milling processes

Xuewei Zhang*, Kornel F. Ehmann, Tianbiao Yu, Wanshan Wang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

143 Scopus citations


Micro-end-milling is capable of machining complex structures in a wider variety of materials at the micro- and meso-scales as compared to other micro machining processes. However, the exact prediction of cutting forces in micro-end-milling is still not fully developed. In order to predict the general three-dimensional cutting force components, the related cutting edge radius size-effect, tool run-out, tool deflection and the exact trochoidal trajectory of tool flute are considered and presented in the proposed analytical prediction model. The proposed cutting force model also includes an algorithm for the calculation of the variable entry and exit angles caused by tool run-out and tool deflection. In the cutting force prediction model, the actual instantaneous uncut chip thickness is evaluated by considering the theoretical instantaneous uncut chip thickness, the minimum uncut chip thickness and a certain critical chip thickness value governed by three types of material removal mechanisms, in the elastic and the elastic-plastic deformation region and the complete chip formation region, respectively. To verify the model, the parameters of tool run-out and tool deflection were obtained from experimental measurements. The proposed cutting force model is validated through micro slot end milling tests with a two-flute carbide micro-end-mill on Al6061 workpieces. The experimental results agree with simulation results very well. The proposed theoretical model offers a basis for real-time machining process monitoring as well as cutting parameters optimization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-40
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016


  • Cutting force model
  • Micro-end-milling
  • Tool deflection
  • Tool run-out

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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