Daily Minutes of Unprotected Sun Exposure (MUSE) Inventory: Measure description and comparisons to UVR sensor and sun protection survey data

Tammy K. Stump*, Lisa G. Aspinwall, Elizabeth L. Gray, Shuai Xu, Nenita Maganti, Sancy A. Leachman, Nabil Alshurafa, June K. Robinson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


One in five US adults will be diagnosed with skin cancer. As most skin cancers are attributable to sun exposure, this risk factor is an important target for research and intervention. Most sun exposure measures assess frequency of specific sun-protection behaviors, which does not account for the use of multiple, potentially overlapping sun-protection methods. In contrast, the Daily Minutes of Unprotected Sun Exposure (MUSE) Inventory assesses sun-protection behavior during self-reported activities, providing several useful metrics, including duration of unprotected sun exposure on 17 body sites, combined to yield an overall MUSE score weighted by percent of body exposed. The present study was conducted July–September 2017, in Chicago, IL USA. For 10 days, participants (39 melanoma survivors; Mage = 58.59, 64.5% female) wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) sensor and completed the Daily MUSE Inventory each evening. The Sun Habits Survey was completed at the end of the study. Outdoor time reported in the MUSE Inventory significantly predicted outdoor time recorded by UVR sensors, B = 0.53, p <.001. For all sun-protection behaviors except shade, reports from the Daily MUSE Inventory (i.e., percentage of outdoor time a particular strategy was used) correlated with frequency ratings of the same strategy from the Sun Habits Survey (rs = 0.66–0.75, p <.05). In sum, the Daily MUSE Inventory corresponds with sensor and survey data, and provides a novel metric of unprotected sun exposure that will be useful for evaluating overall extent of sun exposure, including exposure on several smaller body sites that are at high risk for skin cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-311
Number of pages7
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • Concurrent validity
  • Measurement
  • Self-report assessment
  • Skin cancer
  • Sun protection
  • UVR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health Informatics


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