Data-driven prediction of geometry- and toolpath sequence-dependent intra-layer process conditions variations in laser powder bed fusion

Dominik Kozjek, Conor Porter, Fred M. Carter, Jon Erik Mogonye, Jian Cao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Geometrical features and toolpath sequence are two important factors that cause process condition variations, such as variations in the meltpool temperature or meltpool size, that might lead to undesired material properties in the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process. Due to the high dynamics and complex physics of the LPBF process, it is difficult to predict variations in process conditions with simulations alone. Advances in measurement technology and computational technologies open up new possibilities for smart manufacturing. In this paper, a data-driven method to predict intra-layer variations in the processing conditions that source from the toolpath sequence and part geometry is presented. The approach is demonstrated using two-color on-axis pyrometer measurements. Three demonstration cases are presented in which it is demonstrated (1) how the trained predictive model can be used as a filter to ease the interpretation of process variations and discover patterns related to toolpath and part geometry, and (2) how to generate predictions that can be used for feedforward control, i.e., for adjusting laser power or scanning speed along the toolpath using a meltpool temperature prediction model generated based on on-axis measurements. Results show that the developed prediction model is able to meaningfully predict process variations resulted from toolpath sequence and geometry. Predictions are aligned with the results from the related work of others and for the case of 180° laser path turnarounds in our high-speed X-ray imaging experiments. The potential issues related to the current maturity status of the process and measuring equipment that could in practice affect the performance of the proposed solutions are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)34-46
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Manufacturing Processes
StatePublished - Aug 25 2023


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Laser powder bed fusion
  • Machine learning
  • Meltpool temperatures prediction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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