Decline in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate After Dapagliflozin in Heart Failure With Mildly Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction A Prespecified Secondary Analysis of the DELIVER Randomized Clinical Trial

Finnian R. Mc Causland*, Brian L. Claggett, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Akshay Desai, Pardeep Jhund, Orly Vardeny, James C. Fang, Rudolf A. de Boer, Kieran F. Docherty, Adrian F. Hernandez, Silvio E. Inzucchi, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Carolyn S.P. Lam, Felipe Martinez, Jose F. Kerr Saraiva, Martina M. McGrath, Sanjiv J. Shah, Subodh Verma, Anna Maria Langkilde, Magnus PeterssonJohn J.V. McMurray, Scott D. Solomon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

IMPORTANCE An initial decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is expected after initiating a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and has been observed across patients with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. OBJECTIVE To examine the implications of initial changes in eGFR among patients with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) enrolled in the Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the Lives of Patients With Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) trial. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a prespecified analysis of the results of the DELIVER randomized clinical trial, which was an international multicenter study of patients with EF greater than 40% and eGFR greater than or equal to 25. The DELIVER trial took place from August 2018 to March 2022. Data for the current prespecified study were analyzed from February to October 2023. INTERVENTION Dapagliflozin, 10 mg per day, or placebo. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES In this prespecified analysis, the frequency of an initial eGFR decline (baseline to month 1) was compared between dapagliflozin and placebo. Cox models adjusted for baseline eGFR and established prognostic factors were fit to estimate the association of an initial eGFR decline with cardiovascular (cardiovascular death or heart failure event) and kidney (≥50% eGFR decline, eGFR<15 or dialysis, death from kidney causes) outcomes, landmarked at month 1, stratified by diabetes. RESULTS Study data from 5788 participants (mean [SD] age, 72 [10] years; 3253 male [56%]) were analyzed. The median (IQR) change in eGFR level from baseline to month 1 was −1 (−6 to 5) with placebo and −4 (−9 to 1) with dapagliflozin (difference, −3; P < .001). A higher proportion of patients assigned to dapagliflozin developed an initial eGFR decline greater than 10% vs placebo (1144 of 2892 [40%] vs 737 of 2896 [25%]; odds ratio, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.7-2.1; P difference < .001). An initial eGFR decline of greater than 10% (vs ≤10%) was associated with a higher risk of the primary cardiovascular outcome among those randomized to placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) but not among those randomized to dapagliflozin (aHR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74-1.09; P for interaction =.01). Similar associations were observed when alternative thresholds of initial eGFR decline were considered and when analyzed as a continuous measure. An initial eGFR decline of greater than 10% was not associated with adverse subsequent kidney composite outcomes in dapagliflozin-treated patients (aHR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.49-1.82). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with HFmrEF or HFpEF treated with dapagliflozin, an initial eGFR decline was frequent but not associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular or kidney events. These data reinforce clinical guidance that SGLT2is should not be interrupted or discontinued in response to an initial eGFR decline. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03619213.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)144-152
Number of pages9
JournalJAMA cardiology
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 14 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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