Declining walking impairment questionnaire scores are associated with subsequent increased mortality in peripheral artery disease

Atul Jain, Kiang Liu, Luigi Ferrucci, Michael H. Criqui, Lu Tian, Jack M. Guralnik, Huimin Tao, Mary M. McDermott*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Objectives: This study determined whether greater 2-year declines in Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) stair climbing, distance, or speed scores were associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among men and women with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Background: Associations of decline in the WIQ with mortality among people with PAD are unknown. Methods: Participants were 442 men and women with PAD identified from Chicago area medical centers. The WIQ was completed at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations across categories of 2-year changes in WIQ stair climbing, WIQ distance, and WIQ speed scores with subsequent all-cause and CVD mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, ankle-brachial index, body mass index, smoking, comorbidities, and other covariates. Results: One hundred twenty-three participants (27.8%) died during a median follow-up of 4.7 years after the 2-year change in WIQ score measurements. Forty-five participants died from CVD. Adjusting for covariates, participants with WIQ score declines ≥20.0 points had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 3.68 for WIQ stair climbing; HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.15 to 4.75 for WIQ distance; and HR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.57 to 8.04 for WIQ speed, respectively) compared with participants with ≥20.0 point improvement in each of the corresponding WIQ categories. Participants with ≥20.0 point declines in the WIQ distance score had higher CVD mortality (HR: 4.56, 95% CI: 1.30 to 16.01) compared with those with ≥20.0 point improvement in the WIQ distance score. Conclusions: Patients with PAD who experienced ≥20.0 point declines in the WIQ stair climbing, distance, and speed scores had a higher rate of all-cause mortality compared with those with less declines in each WIQ score.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1820-1829
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number17
StatePublished - Apr 30 2013


  • functional limitation
  • intermittent claudication
  • mortality
  • peripheral artery disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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