Objectives: This study determined whether greater 2-year declines in Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) stair climbing, distance, or speed scores were associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among men and women with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Background: Associations of decline in the WIQ with mortality among people with PAD are unknown. Methods: Participants were 442 men and women with PAD identified from Chicago area medical centers. The WIQ was completed at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations across categories of 2-year changes in WIQ stair climbing, WIQ distance, and WIQ speed scores with subsequent all-cause and CVD mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, ankle-brachial index, body mass index, smoking, comorbidities, and other covariates. Results: One hundred twenty-three participants (27.8%) died during a median follow-up of 4.7 years after the 2-year change in WIQ score measurements. Forty-five participants died from CVD. Adjusting for covariates, participants with WIQ score declines ≥20.0 points had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 3.68 for WIQ stair climbing; HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.15 to 4.75 for WIQ distance; and HR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.57 to 8.04 for WIQ speed, respectively) compared with participants with ≥20.0 point improvement in each of the corresponding WIQ categories. Participants with ≥20.0 point declines in the WIQ distance score had higher CVD mortality (HR: 4.56, 95% CI: 1.30 to 16.01) compared with those with ≥20.0 point improvement in the WIQ distance score. Conclusions: Patients with PAD who experienced ≥20.0 point declines in the WIQ stair climbing, distance, and speed scores had a higher rate of all-cause mortality compared with those with less declines in each WIQ score.
- functional limitation
- intermittent claudication
- peripheral artery disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine