Deficits, differences, and ceilings: Contingent Conditions for Understanding the Knowledge Gap

James S. Ettema, F. Gerald Kline

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

144 Scopus citations


This article focuses on audience-related factors such as ability, motivation, and media use as well as “ceiling effects” that act as contingent conditions for understanding the “knowledge gap.” Ability deficits, individual differences, and ceiling effects, true or imposed, are examined to attempt a clarification of how knowledge gaps are widened or narrowed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-202
Number of pages24
JournalCommunication Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1977


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Communication
  • Linguistics and Language

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