Defining the Importance of Age-Related Changes in Drug Clearance to Optimizing Aminoglycoside Dosing Regimens for Adult Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Roxane Rohani, Brian Hoff, Manu Jain, Alexander Philbrick, Sara Salama, Joanne F. Cullina, Nathaniel J. Rhodes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Objective: The number of adults living with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased and will continue to do so with the approval of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators. Because systemic aminoglycosides are commonly administered for CF pulmonary exacerbations, we sought to define optimized dosing regimens using a population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach. Methods: Adult CF patients admitted for pulmonary exacerbation, receiving at least 72 h of systemic gentamicin, tobramycin, or amikacin, with measured concentrations were included. Covariates [e.g., age, weight, creatinine clearance (CRCL)] were screened. Population modeling was completed using Monolix, and simulations were conducted in R. Simulated exposures were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Once-daily fixed (10 mg/kg) and exposure-matched dosing (i.e., 15, 10, 7.5, 6 mg/kg for ages 20, 30, 40, and 50 years, respectively) strategies were compared. First-24 h exposures were evaluated for each strategy according to the probability of target attainment (PTA) (ratio of peak plasma concentrations relative to the minimum inhibitory concentration [Cmax/MIC] or ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to MIC [AUC/MIC]) and the probability of toxic exposure (PTE) (trough concentration, Ctrough > 2 mg/l). Results: Forty-eight adult patients (55% female) were included. A one-compartment model best fit the data. Estimates for volume of distribution (V) and clearance (CL) were 22 l and 5.57 l/h, respectively. Weight significantly modified CL and V. Age significantly modified CL and was more influential than CRCL. PTA was > 90% at MICs ≤ 1 mg/l for fixed doses of 10 mg/kg and for exposure-matched doses at MIC ≤ 1 mg/l. Exposure-matched dosing reduced PTE roughly 50% in patients aged 40 and 50 years vs. fixed dosing. Conclusions: Exposure-matching maintained PTA at MICs ≤ 1 mg/l while reducing toxicity risk in older patients compared to fixed dosing. Confirmatory studies are needed.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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