Objective: To evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and clinical consequences of delayed intraventricular hemorrhage (dIVH). Methods: Patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) were enrolled into a prospective registry between December 2006 and February 2012. Patients were managed, and serial neuroimaging obtained, per a structured protocol. Initial and delayed IVH were identified on imaging, along with ICH volumes, with outcomes blinded. Multivariate models were developed to test whether the occurrence of dIVH was a predictor of functional outcomes independent of known predictors, including the ICH score elements and ICH growth. Results: A total of 216 patients were studied, and 104 (48%) had IVH on initial imaging. Of the 112 with no IVH, 23 (21%) subsequently developed IVH. Emergent surgical intervention, mostly ventriculostomy placement, was required after discovery of dIVH in 10 (43%) of these 23. In multivariate models adjusting for all elements of the ICH score and hematoma growth, dIVH was an independent predictor of death at 14 days (p= 0.015) and higher modified Rankin Scale scores at 3 months (all p= 0.037). The effect of dIVH remained significant in a secondary analysis that adjusted for all other variables significant in the univariate analysis. Conclusions: Similar to hematoma expansion dIVH is independently associated with death and poor outcomes. Because IVH is easily detected by serial neuroimaging and often requires emergent surgical intervention, monitoring for dIVH is recommended.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology