Depressive symptoms are more strongly related to executive functioning and episodic memory among African American compared with non-hispanic white older adults

Laura B. Zahodne*, Cindy J. Nowinski, Richard C. Gershon, Jennifer J. Manly

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


We examined whether the reserve capacity model can be extended to cognitive outcomes among older African Americans. Two hundred and ninety-two non-Hispanic Whites and 37 African Americans over age 54 participated in the normative study for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Multiple-group path analysis showed that associations between depressive symptoms and cognition differed by race, independent of age, education, reading level, income, health, and recruitment site. Depressive symptoms were associated with slowed processing speed among Whites and worse task-switching, inhibition, and episodic memory among African Americans. African Americans may be more vulnerable to negative effects of depression on cognition than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is needed to explicate the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of this greater vulnerability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)663-669
Number of pages7
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014



  • Cross-cultural/minority
  • Depression
  • Elderly/geriatrics/aging
  • Executive functions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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