Design of Experiments with Two- and Four-Level Factors

Bruce E. Ankenman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Practitioners familiar with the design of two-level fractional factorials are often frustrated when confronted with factors that have more than two levels. This article provides a guide for the inclusion of four-level factors into standard two-level factorial designs. Tables are presented to allow for the design of experiments with two-level and four-level factors using the same types of experimental design criteria commonly used for designing two-level fractional factorials. The concepts of resolution, aberration, and foldover are explained in the context of experiments with two-level and four-level factors. Several new minimum aberration designs that are not in the literature are listed in the tables, and new follow-up designs for the recommended experiments are also provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)363-375
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Quality Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1999


  • Foldover
  • Fractional Factorial Designs
  • Minimum Aberration
  • Orthogonal Arrays
  • Resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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