Design of 'softer' robust nonlinear control laws

R. A. Freeman, P. V. Kokotovic*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


We show that the Lyapunov function used in backstepping feedback designs for uncertain nonlinear systems leads to unnecessarily 'hard' control laws having undesirable high-gain properties. We present a new Lyapunov function and use it to design 'softer' control laws which exhibit the high-gain properties to a much lesser extent. We show that the 'soft' designs eliminate the chattering exhibited by the 'hard' designs and achieve the same or better performance with less control effort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1425-1437
Number of pages13
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1993


  • Backstepping
  • mismatched uncertainties
  • nonlinear systems
  • robust control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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