The recruitment, selection, and ovulation of follicles, termed folliculogenesis, result from a complex set of signals that are exchanged between the follicle and its environment. These interactions include circulating hormones, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and mechanical signaling. The ovarian environment is highly dynamic, which has been commonly characterized by the cyclic changes in endocrine factors. Disruption of this dynamic interplay between the follicle and its environment, which can result from environmental toxins, disease, or disease therapies, underlies many causes of infertility. Although the significance of endocrine factors has been widely recognized, numerous other aspects of the ovarian environment are increasingly being recognized for their role in regulating folliculogenesis. Identifying the environmental mechanisms that regulate follicle development is essential for creating novel strategies to preserve fertility.