Determination of Interpenetration of Polystyrene in Solution and Film by Energy-Transfer Techniques

John M. Torkelson*, Steven R. Gilbert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Energy-transfer techniques involving carbazole- and anthracene-labeled polystyrenes have been shown to be suitable for studying interpenetration of polystyrene in both good (toluene) and fair (ethyl acetate) solvents and for observing the correlation hole effect in polystyrene films. In solution, interpolymer energy transfer is negligible or limited until substantial polymer concentrations are reached. the critical concentration for chain overlap, c*, can be determined by an increase or break in the plot of IAIcas a function of concentration, where /A//cis the ratio of fluorescence intensities of anthracene label to carbazole label. For polymers with nearly equivalent label content on a per repeat unit basis, the proportionality constant, A, relating c* to [n]-1is observed to be molecular weight dependent. This can be accounted for by the molecular weight dependence of the density of repeat units of a polymer coil in solution. For a polystyrene solution with a bimodal molecular weight distribution, the coefficient A is smaller than for either of the monodisperse polystyrene solutions. At concentrations above c*, /A//cincreases more rapidly for toluene solutions than for ethyl acetate solutions, suggesting that the tendency for interaction and thus interpenetration above c* is greater in better solvents. In films cast from toluene and ethyl acetate solutions, Ia/Iq is nearly independent of solvent but is much smaller for higher molecular weight polymers; this is a manifestation of the correlation hole effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1860-1865
Number of pages6
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 1987

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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