Determination of the solubility of tin in indium oxide using in situ and ex situ X-Ray diffraction

G. B. González*, T. O. Mason, J. S. Okasinski, T. Buslaps, V. Honkimäki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


A novel approach to determine the thermodynamic solubility of tin in indium oxide via the exsolution from tin overdoped nano-ITO powders is presented. High-energy, in situ and ex situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was utilized to study the solubility limit at temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1375°C. The tin exsolution from overdoped nanopowders and the formation of In 4Sn 3O 12were observed in situ during the first 4-48 h of high-temperature treatment. Samples annealed between 900°C and 1175°C were also studied ex situ with heat treatments for up to 2060 h. Structural results obtained from Rietveld analysis include compositional phase analysis, atomic positions, and lattice parameters. The tin solubility in In 2O 3was determined using the phase analysis compositions from X-ray diffraction and the elemental compositions obtained from X-ray fluorescence. Experimental complications that can lead to incorrect tin solubility values in the literature are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)809-815
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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