Determining educational assessment criteria for patellar-Tendon-bearing impressions for transtibial prosthetic sockets: A Delphi study

Kierra J. Falbo, Sara J. Morgan, John T. Brinkmann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background:Validated criteria to guide assessment of student performance in clinical tasks in prosthetics and orthotics education have not been established. Lack of established criteria and assessment methods presents challenges in evaluating student performance on clinical tasks, such as taking impressions for patellar-Tendon-bearing (PTB) sockets.Objectives:To establish assessment criteria for the PTB impression process for use in educational settings.Study design:Delphi consensus process.Methods:Initial Delphi survey items were based on interviews with prosthetic instructors and focus groups with prosthetic students. Expert prosthetic educators were then identified by purposive sampling to complete multiple-round Internet-based Delphi surveys. The Delphi surveys asked experts to indicate their level of agreement on various assessment methods and criteria in PTB education. Consensus for survey items was reviewed after each survey round and used to determine the content of and need for subsequent rounds.Results:Fourteen experts completed two Delphi survey rounds. Items were categorized into educational materials/strategies, impression stages/materials, measurement tools, measurements taken, assessment during impression, assessment after impression, feedback, student self-Assessment, and grading. In two survey rounds, 40 items guiding assessment methods and criteria for PTB impressions achieved 80% consensus.Conclusions:A high level of consensus was achieved in two survey rounds. Lower levels of consensus were reached on specific objective criteria, such as use of measurement thresholds when evaluating student impressions. Standardized assessment of student performance on PTB impression-Taking instead relies primarily on qualitative assessments based on instructor expertise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)601-606
Number of pages6
JournalProsthetics and orthotics international
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • artificial limbs
  • consensus
  • education
  • patellar-Tendon-bearing socket

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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