Deterministic fabrication of 3D/2D perovskite bilayer stacks for durable and efficient solar cells

Siraj Sidhik, Yafei Wang, Michael De Siena, Reza Asadpour, Andrew J. Torma, Tanguy Terlier, Kevin Ho, Wenbin Li, Anand B. Puthirath, Xinting Shuai, Ayush Agrawal, Boubacar Traore, Matthew Jones, Rajiv Giridharagopal, Pulickel M. Ajayan, Joseph Strzalka, David S. Ginger, Claudine Katan, Muhammad Ashraful Alam, Jacky Even*Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Aditya D. Mohite

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Realizing solution-processed heterostructures is a long-enduring challenge in halide perovskites because of solvent incompatibilities that disrupt the underlying layer. By leveraging the solvent dielectric constant and Gutmann donor number, we could grow phase-pure two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskite stacks of the desired composition, thickness, and bandgap onto 3D perovskites without dissolving the underlying substrate. Characterization reveals a 3D–2D transition region of 20 nanometers mainly determined by the roughness of the bottom 3D layer. Thickness dependence of the 2D perovskite layer reveals the anticipated trends for n-i-p and p-i-n architectures, which is consistent with band alignment and carrier transport limits for 2D perovskites. We measured a photovoltaic efficiency of 24.5%, with exceptional stability of T99 (time required to preserve 99% of initial photovoltaic efficiency) of >2000 hours, implying that the 3D/2D bilayer inherits the intrinsic durability of 2D perovskite without compromising efficiency.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1425-1430
Number of pages6
Issue number6613
StatePublished - Sep 23 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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