Development and Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Multistation Cardiovascular Simulator

Gabriel Loor*, Alexander Doud, Tom C. Nguyen, Mara B. Antonoff, Jean D. Morancy, Michael P. Robich, David D. Odell, Leora T. Yarboro, Ara A. Vaporciyan, Eric Roselli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background. To facilitate deliberate practice, we developed and evaluated a three-dimensional multistation cardiovascular simulator with low-fidelity, anatomically correct materials. Methods. Surgical educators and senior fellows at several national institutions who are a part of the Thoracic Education Cooperative Group completed expert validation surveys that feature a self-report rating scale, ranging from 0 (don't know) to 4 (highly realistic, no changes needed), and a global recommendation rating scale, ranging from 0 to 3. To analyze the survey results, we used paired Student t tests and a many-facet Rasch model. Results. We analyzed the results of 18 expert validation surveys (completed by 9 senior fellows and by 9 staff surgeons). The overall realism-of-experience rating for the simulator was 3.23 (of 4), suggesting adequate realism with room remaining for improvement. Senior fellows rated the aortic graft replacement station and overall physical attributes more favorably than staff. Staff surgeons favored the simulator for realism of the mitral valve annuloplasty station and the cannulation station and for its use as a training tool. The overall global recommendation rating for the simulator was 2.38 (of 3), suggesting that the simulator can be considered for use in cardiovascular surgery training programs with minor improvements. Conclusions. This three-dimensional multistation cardiovascular simulator has adequate realism and can be considered for use in cardiovascular training programs. Platforms such as this may facilitate deliberate home practice and reinforcement of technical skills.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-68
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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